Food & Water
Pippin: What about breakfast?
Aragorn: You’ve already had it.
Pippin: We’ve had one, yes. What about second breakfast?
(Aragorn turns and walks off in disgust)
Merry: I don’t think he knows about second breakfast, Pip.
Pippin: What about elevenses? Luncheon? Afternoon tea? Dinner? Supper? He knows about them, doesn’t he?
Merry: I wouldn’t count on it……..
– from the film adaptation of JRR Tolkien’s “The Fellowship of the Ring“
Never skimp on food and water. Over the years I have seen more hikers than I can remember, who have paid the price for cutting corners in regards to their dietary and hydration needs. The question lightweight-minded hikers need to ask is “how can I lighten the amount of food and water I am carrying, without compromising my health and safety?”
When it comes to food, hikers can be a demanding bunch. We want food that’s tasty, nutritious and filling, but we want those requirements to be met in the most compact, lightweight and easy to prepare package possible (see Food in the PLANNING section). For a comprehensive overview of backpacking foods, click on the following link, Pack Light, Eat Right, which contains a very informative series of articles written by Ph.D. Nutritionist and long distance hiker Dr. Brenda Braaten. From a purely weight saving perspective, consider the following observations:
HIGH CALORIE DENSITY FOODS
High caloric foods have a greater energy-to-weight ratio. More bang for your caloric buck. Examples include trail mix (scroggin), peanut butter, granola, corn chips, cheese and certain energy bars (eg. my favourites are Pro Bar, Meal Pack and Cliff Bar). Regularly snacking (say every two hours) on such items, which are high in both carbohydrates and fats, enables the hiker to better maintain consistent energy levels by minimizing the depletion of the body’s glycogen stores.
MINIMIZE MOISTURE CONTENT
Freeze dried and dehydrated foods are light, convenient and compact. Moisture is removed without sacrificing caloric value. In theory they sound great, however, not all dried foods are created equal. Many freeze-dried products are highly processed and pretty much devoid of nutrition. In addition, they are often over-packaged and overpriced. That being said, in recent years the nutritional side of things seems to have improved with more additive-free options becoming available. Always read the ingredients list before purchasing and if you choose to carry a lot of these items, consider repackaging them before your hike to save on weight and space. Note that the healthiest, tastiest and cheapest option on the dried food front is to do it yourself. The catch? It can be very time consuming.
LESS COOKING = LESS WEIGHT
By limiting yourself to one cooked meal per day, you significantly decrease the amount of fuel you will need to carry. In warmer temperatures, you may even consider going without cooking altogether. In this case you will save even more weight by eliminating the need for a stove and cooking pot. Examples of “no cook” meals include dehydrated beans, homous and potatoes, which when mixed together with olive oil and corn chips combine to make a tasty, relatively lightweight meals.
Save weight by repackaging as much as possible before setting out. Excess packaging equates to superfluous weight and less available volume in your pack for more essential items.
When heading out into the woods laden with seven days plus worth of food, your pack is going to be heavy no matter how low your base weight may be. Take solace in the fact that with each passing day, as food is consumed and fuel is burned, your pack will become progressively lighter. By the end of your hike you will be positively skipping along! Tip: Eat the heaviest, most moisture-laden items (eg. fruit & vegetables) during the first couple of days of your walk.
How much water you should drink depends on three main factors: the conditions in which you are hiking, your level of exertion and your own individual needs. For a detailed look at water strategies, see Hydration in the HEALTH & SAFETY section. From a purely weight-centric perspective, the question is how can we minimize the amount of water we are carrying, without running the risk of incurring dehydration? Consider the following observations:
Before setting out on a hike, always know where your water will be coming from. Sources of information include maps, trekking notes, the internet and most importantly, up-to-date information from local sources. Knowing the location, current status and quality of your water sources allows you to plan in advance, thereby minimizing the need to carry large quantities of extra water for insurance purposes.
Before breaking camp, make a habit of drinking one litre of water. Think of it as a “hydration” investment for the rest of the day. The more you drink early, the less you will need to drink (and carry) later on.
If you are hiking in terrain where opportunities to fill your bottles are few and far between, drink at least one litre of water before leaving each source.
In hot, largely shadeless conditions where water sources are scarce, do the bulk of your hiking whilst temperatures are cooler (ie. early morning, late afternoon and early evening). By following such a strategy, it is possible to make do with less water because you are resting rather than exerting during the hottest part of the day.
In arid environments, plan to eat your main meals at water sources, thus negating the need to carry extra water for cooking purposes.
Once experience has taught you how much water you need in different types of terrain and conditions, it doesn’t make sense to carry a great deal extra for security purposes. Aim at carrying enough water to enable you to arrive at the next source well hydrated, but not so much that you get there with a couple of litres still to drink. This equates to wasted energy. Obviously, an exception to this point is if you find yourself walking in an environment where you are not certain of the quality and/or regularity of your water sources. In such situations, it is always wise to err on the side of caution.