“By failing to prepare, you are preparing to fail.”
- Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
Once you have selected your destination, then it’s a question of sorting out the nuts and bolts before embarking on your journey. Whilst there is no universal archetype by which each and every hike can be planned, there are certain basic questions and concerns that need to be addressed before you head out into the wilderness.
ALONE OR WITH A GROUP?
“Never walk alone” is a common refrain heard from Park Rangers, Liverpool Football (Soccer) fans and Rodgers and Hammerstein aficionados the world over.
In so much as it relates to hiking, it can be considered sound advice for beginners and/or experienced hikers venturing into unfamiliar conditions. It should not, however, be taken as an all-encompassing gospel truth. Whether you hike solo or with a group depends on three principal factors:
- Your level of experience.
- The prevailing conditions.
- Personal preference.
Walking alone in the wilderness can be immensely rewarding. However, problems can occur when hikers venture solo into terrain and conditions for which they are not prepared. It is therefore important to always balance intangible considerations such as freedom, self-determination and connection with nature, with a realistic assessment of your backcountry skill set.
HIKING IN A GROUP
- In case of injury or illness, help is close at hand.
- Minimizes the possibility of getting lost.
- Comradeship with like-minded people.
- Opportunity to learn from those with greater experience. Helpful for beginners.
- Possible to share certain gear, such as shelter and stove, thus decreasing pack weight.
- Compromised sense of freedom: pace, campsites, breaks, food choices, starting and finishing times are often determined by the group leader or by general consensus.
- Bigger wilderness footprint.
- Minimizes chances to view wildlife.
- If you choose to hike in a group, make it a small one. The bigger the group, the larger the environmental impact.
- Know your fellow group members before setting out. The last thing anyone wants is for their hike to be ruined by a personality clash out on the trail.
- The freedom to choose the pace at which you walk, where you camp, what you eat and when you take a break.
- Heightened feeling of connection with your natural surroundings.
- Opportunity to see more wildlife, as a solo hiker represents less of a potential threat.
- Reduced impact on the environment.
- You are on your own if injury or illness occurs.
- Your pack may be heavier as sharing equipment is not an option (eg. tent, stove, maps).
- Need to be constantly aware of your position, as there is no one else to point you in the right direction if you happen to drift off with the fairies.
Before undertaking a multi-day hike it pays to be in good shape. Why? Two principal reasons:
Enjoyment: The fitter you are the less you struggle, physically and mentally. This particularly holds true during the first few days of a hike. By being in good shape, you are able to focus more on the beauty of your surroundings and less on the distraction of how exhausted you feel.
Health: A good level of pre-hike conditioning minimizes the likelihood of stress/repetition related injuries such as knee and achilles ailments.
For a detailed look at Hiking Fitness, see the HEALTH & SAFETY section.
Internet, guidebooks, Outdoor magazines, the local library, experienced hiker friends.
WHEN TO GO?
- In Season: The ideal time weather-wise, but depending on where you are hiking, crowds may be an issue. May not be the best time for those seeking solitude, however it is the optimum period for beginners looking to gain experience.
- Out of Season: No crowds, but weather is usually an issue. Generally requires a higher level of backcountry skill and experience in order to deal with what could potentially be difficult conditions.
- The Shoulder Seasons: Can be an ideal compromise for seasoned hikers wanting to avoid the crowds, but at the same time providing the possibility of good weather.
- Other Contributing Factors: Flora (eg. autumn colours, spring foliage), fauna (eg. migration, mating season) and cultural (eg. ceremonies, festivals).
When hiking abroad, make an effort to educate yourself in regards to local customs and environmental issues. A few words of the local language never go astray. Your hosts will appreciate your efforts.
Expectations: Realistically assess your level of fitness, experience and skill, and choose a route accordingly. Problems in the backcountry can occur when ill-prepared hikers attempt routes that are beyond them.
Maps & Trekking Notes:
- Plan your route.
- Identify possible campsites.
- Note the location of water sources.
- Estimate trekking times for each section.
- Identify potentially hazardous areas and possible evacuation routes.
Permits and/or Permission: Organize permission (eg. If trekking over private lands) or permits (eg. National Park or hut fees) before setting out. Generally speaking, your money goes back into the very place in which you are hiking.
Maildrops: For longer hikes where resupply options are limited, you may need to organize maildrops in advance. Such packages are usually sent General Delivery. Be sure to include your name, estimated date of arrival and a little side note saying, “Please hold for ……..name of trail………. hiker.”
Getting There & Away: Arrange transport to and from the trail. Always have a backup plan in case injury, illness or other circumstances force you to finish early.
Keep it Simple: Research the terrain and conditions you are likely to encounter, and then take only what you need (see Gear).
Light & Safe: Go as light as possible without compromising safety. It is difficult to enjoy your surroundings if your backpack weighs the proverbial tonne (see Going Light).
At Home: Keep all your hiking equipment in one cupboard. Make a gear list and tape it to the inside of that cupboard. Same principle applies for your hiking clothes. This will save a lot of last minute rushing around trying to locate everything. Speaking from personal experience on this one.
Food tastes better in the outdoors. I guess it’s a combination of fresh air, beautiful surroundings and all that exercise you’re doing. It also represents the most regularly anticipated and most commonly fantasized about subject that occupies a hiker’s mind. Yep, even more than that other one.
In keeping with its exalted status, it stands to reason that no matter whether you are a Gourmet, Spartan or somewhere in between, food will play a significant role in your hiking plans. There are four main factors to consider when formulating a backpacking shopping list:
- Length of hike
- Food weight
- Personal preference
On shorter trips of a week or less, our body’s natural reserves are such that we can pretty much eat anything and still be relatively ok. However, for longer walks, nutritional (ie. vitamins and minerals) needs come into play, thereby necessitating a little more thought and planning in regards to our on-trail diet. Ideally a balance should be struck between quantity, quality and taste.
How much food you need depends on multiple factors such as metabolism, level of exertion, age, sex and climate (you need more in cold weather). Your own personal experiences in the outdoors will ultimately be your best guide. As a general reference point, it is estimated that for three-season (ie. summer, autumn, spring) travel the average hiker needs to carry approximately 1 kg (2.2 lbs) of food per day. How that quantity is divided up will dictate your energy levels and ultimately your overall health out on the trail.
- The Breakdown: Food consists of three main elements: carbohydrates, fats and proteins. To achieve optimum hiking efficiency, we need to strike a balance between all three. For extended hiking trips, nutritionist and long distance hiker, Dr. Brenda Braaten, Ph.D, recommends the following caloric breakdown: 45-55% carbs; 35-40% fats; 10-15% protein. For shorter hikes, where potential weight loss is not so much of an issue, you can decrease the amount of fatty foods you carry and increase the quantity of carbs and proteins. For a detailed look at the caloric requirements for hiking, see the following link from Bushwalking.org.au.
When it comes to food, long distance hikers can be a very demanding bunch. They want nutrition, but they want it to come in a compact, lightweight, easy to prepare, high caloric density package. Oh yes, preferably it should be economically priced as well. For an in depth overview of the nutritional side of backpacking foods, see Dr. Braaten’s excellent series of articles, Pack Light, Eat Right.
Bring food that appeals to you. You may have ticked all the boxes in regards to nutrition, high calorie density and overall weight, but the fact is that if you don’t enjoy the items you have packed it’s like a metaphorical black cloud is looming over each and every meal. Find a balance.
Unless you can subsist on the same food day after day (and many ultralight hikers do), plan on packing a variety of options. Don’t underestimate how easily you will become bored with certain foods.
KEEP IT SIMPLE
During longer treks, bring along easy to prepare items (eg. quick-cook pasta, freeze dried & dehydrated foods) which require little preparation time. At the end of a long day, you want to be spending your time eating and relaxing rather than slaving over a three-course feast. Remember, even the most simple foods usually taste great when you are in the Great Outdoors.
EAT SMALL & OFTEN
Snacking regularly (say every two hours), as opposed to three big set meals a day, is conducive to a more efficient hiking approach. You are not as weighed down with a full stomach, your muscles won’t be as stiff because your breaks aren’t as long and it’s better for your digestive system. Most importantly, by feeding your body small amounts at regular intervals, it is easier to maintain your energy levels throughout the hiking day. Tip: Keep your day’s snacks near the top of your pack for easy access.
Whether on trail or off, fresh, organic foods will always be nutritionally superior and provide greater energy than processed and refined fare. Unfortunately, for backpacking purposes fresh foods are generally heavy and have a limited use-by date. If you choose to carry fresh items, try eating them in the first couple of days of your hike, thereby eliminating the heavier items straight off the bat.
Generally speaking, you will not have the same range of choice that you do back home. That being said, hiking staples such as nuts, raisins, chocolate, tuna and porridge are available in most places. It comes down to perspective. Rather than focus on what isn’t available, try looking at what is. Think of it as a culinary adventure and an exercise in adaptability. Dive in and try as many new things as your palate and stomach can stand!
Before setting out, always check the latest weather forecast. If conditions take a turn for the worse, you need to be aware of your options in regards to:
- Possible evacuation routes.
- Emergency shelters or campsites.
- River crossings that may become impassable during heavy rains.
- Exposed areas such as treeless ridgelines……….whereabouts can you descend if an electrical storm is approaching?
LEAVE TRIP DETAILS
Always leave your hiking itinerary details with a responsible contact person. Once you have completed your walk, be sure to inform the contact that you have finished. These points especially hold true if you are hiking solo.
You may have planned your trip to the umpteenth degree, but Mother Nature often has ideas of her own. When you enter the wilderness by all means be as prepared as you possibly can be, but at the same time go with an open and adaptable mindset. Schedules that are set in stone are rarely a good thing when it comes to backcountry travel. Find a balance between the planned and the spontaneous. Leave your expectations at the trailhead. Your trip will be all the better for it.